Analogy, including metaphor, is the basis of human thought. They are persuasive resources that we use in daily life, not only in language but also in thought and action. David Penn, Vice President of Victoria’s Secret, explains it this way: “Every time the consumer receives a message from the outside, the world and its biology collide, and from this collision the meaning of the brand emerges.”

Our ordinary conceptual system, which shapes the terms in which we think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical in nature. Concepts like “time is money” are completely ingrained in our culture. Metaphor and metonymy are Panama WhatsApp Number List  important bases of semiotics, they are related to both the figurative and literal meanings of signals.

Brands are themselves metaphors because they represent sensory experiences, and not literal descriptions of those experiences. While products are literal, brands are metaphorical as they are projected images of the experience with those products / services they represent. The metaphor uses the comparison, association or resemblance to make an analogy between one thing and another. “What’s the smell of clouds?”. Metonymy uses an attribute of something to make it stand out on its own. “Connecting people”.

On the other hand, there is also irony, which is the totally opposite use of the meaning of a word. This is one of the main problems that robots encounter in indexing to obtain the so-called “online reputation”, since they do not understand the irony that makes the real meaning completely dependent on the context. While metaphor is based on symbolic meanings, metonymy does so on indexed meanings. Brands use metaphor or metonymy constantly, both in their names and in communication. Some names are more literal like iPhone and others more symbolic like Apple. Even many successful metaphorical brand names end up being metonyms for their own category: Kleenex, Walkman, Post-it …

In this sense, brands that use literal communication appeal to the rational part of the brain, while those that use metaphors directly target the emotional and unconscious parts of the brain. One of the principles of semiotics is that things are often not what they seem and their meaning is not.

The oppositions are the base of configuration of the myths, whose objective is to dramatize the contradictions to solve them later. Many binary oppositions have a universal character (good and bad, love and hate …) and are part of the very essence of Storytelling. Binary oppositions are a great way to think about meanings, and to find innovative ways to break convention.

One of the best known examples of the use of contradictions in branding came from the hand of Skip detergent. His “Getting Dirty is Good” campaign has been one of the most successful in his category. Skip solves the contradiction between science and nature, clean and dirty, good and bad. While cleanliness is culturally associated with the good, Skip finds the formula to embrace the bad by letting children get dirty as part of their learning. It is not just a communication campaign, it is an authentic declaration of intent that starts from the brand promise itself.

It is clear that metaphors gain their maximum force when they are accompanied by a suggestive visualization, which underlines or replaces even the use of headlines or verbal messages. But, as we see, visual metaphors do not act in isolation, but must start from the very essence, and the values ​​and attributes of the brand. According to David A. Aaker and Erich Joachimsthaler in Brand Leadership: “The development of visual metaphors provides another way to make identity more alive.” Metaphors, closely linked to the theory of archetypes, have the ability to transmit the values ​​and attributes of a brand, evoking psychological or cultural triggers and the very creation of emotional experiences.

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